Heart Failure (HF)
Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (BIS)
Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM)
The Psychology Behind

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Heart Failure (HF) is a chronic condition resulting from the heart's inability to effectively pump blood due to structural or functional cardiac impairments1. This leads to a gradual decline in heart function (contractility), causing blood congestion and inadequate oxygen delivery to the body's organs2. In response, the body tries to compensate by retaining fluid and increasing heart rate to enhance blood circulation.

When the heart isn't pumping effectively, the kidneys react quickly by holding onto more sodium and water3. At first, the body tries to compensate by constricting blood vessels to keep blood flowing to organs. However, as time goes on, fluid starts to build up in the tissues, leading to an increase in the volume of fluid in the blood vessels (swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen, coughing, weight gain, shortness of breath, etc.)4. These processes work together to maintain higher blood volume levels.

Unfortunately, over time sustained efforts result in cardiac decline, which is characterized by sudden drops marked as acute events followed by hospitalization5. These incidents may worsen heart failure, causing notable cardiac function declines followed by gradual recoveries. Hospitalizations due to acute exacerbations are particularly significant events in the condition trajectory both on physical and psychological level6.

Research indicates that nearly two-thirds of the one million annual HF hospital admissions in the U.S. are due to avoidable fluid accumulation7, yet HF remains the second leading cause of hospitalization8. The condition is stabilized and treated with GMDT (Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy) and appropriate dosage of diuretic therapy. To assess a patient's fluid status accurately, providers need the right tools, as this is the only way to optimize treatment, shorten hospital stays, and prevent unnecessary admissions.

Pulsli is bridging this gap by providing such a tool.

If you are interested in understanding the details of Heart Failure and how Pulsli addresses it, please request our complete science package.


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  1. Jessup, M., Abraham, W. T., Casey, D. E., Feldman, A. M., Francis, G. S., Ganiats, T. G., ... & Yancy, C. W. (2009). Writing Group to Review New Evidence and Update the 2005 Guideline for the Management of Patients with Chronic Heart Failure Writing on Behalf of the 2005 Heart Failure Writing Committee. 2009 focused update: ACCF/AHA guidelines for the diagnosis and management of heart failure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: developed in collaboration with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Circulation, 119(14), 1977-2016.https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192064
  2. Malik, A., Brito, D., Vaqar, S., & Chhabra, L. (2017). Congestive heart failure.https://europepmc.org/article/NBK/nbk430873
  3. Shahim, B., Kapelios, C. J., Savarese, G., & Lund, L. H. (2023). Global public health burden of heart failure: an updated review. Cardiac Failure Review, 9.https://doi.org/10.15420/cfr.2023.05
  4. Mann, D. L. (2006). Heart failure: beyond practice guidelines. Texas Heart Institute Journal, 33(2), 201.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16878626/
  5. Mozaffarian, D., Benjamin, E. J., Go, A. S., Arnett, D. K., Blaha, M. J., Cushman, M., ... & Turner, M. B. (2016). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association.  Circulation, 133(4), e38-e360.https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000350
  6. Gheorghiade, M., De Luca, L., Fonarow, G. C., Filippatos, G., Metra, M., & Francis, G. S. (2005). Pathophysiologic targets in the early phase of acute heart failure syndromes.  The American Journal of Cardiology, 96(6), 11-17.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.07.016
  7. Zilberberg, M. D., Nathanson, B. H., Sulham, K., Mohr, J. F., Goodwin, M., & Shorr, A. F. (2023). Examining the Burden of Potentially Avoidable Heart Failure Hospitalizations. ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research, 721-731.https://doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S423868
  8. Weiss, A. J., & Jiang, H. J. (2021). Overview of clinical conditions with frequent and costly hospital readmissions by payer, 2018 (HCUP Statistical Brief No. 278). Retrieved March 27, 2024, fromhttps://hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb278-Conditions-Frequent-Readmissions-By-Payer-2018.jsp
  9. Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C., Opsha, Y., Sandhu, A. T., Sweitzer, N. K., Warraich, H. J., ... & Ng, T. (2022). Economic issues in heart failure in the United States. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 28(3), 453-466.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.12.017